Posted by:Monica Samuel August 12th, 2011

Programming languages have evolved at an amazing pace over the past decades, even as some of the earliest languages continue to be part of modern applications. Take FORTRAN for example. Created in 1957 for complex mathematical and statistical calculations, the language is still used in aerospace, government, automotive industry, and research institutes.

The history of computer languages shows the large scale movement of code and code developers to more generic applications from the niche research, science or number crunching applications of earlier on. Most business applications of today – ERP/CRM applications, retail software, e-commerce portals and innumerable others – are built on more user-friendly languages such as Java, C++, Perl, PHP, etc.

In this post, we’ll talk about three of the most popular and commonly used languages of the day – Java, C#, and Objective-C.


Java was created by Sun as an easier and more powerful solution to C++. The statically


typed cross-platform object oriented language took off during the Internet boom with Java applets. But that was soon overtaken by the appearance of HTML/DHTML and JavaScript for client-side activities. However, once Java moved to the middle tier and Sun came up with the J2EE solution to develop app components for web servers and business application servers, there was no looking back.

Java technology is secure. It is versatile and efficient with cross-platform implementation. These qualities make it ideal for the development of enterprise applications, network computing, devices of all types including PCs; mobile phones; tablets and other portable devices, gaming consoles, media players to supercomputers.


C# 1.0 came up because of the need of a language for managed code that would appeal to C++ and Java programmers. The language developed alongside the .NET Framework and is specifically designed for the Common Language Infrastructure. It progressed to Generics, and then LINQ with functional programming features to C# 4.0 that’s about dynamic programming and communicating with dynamic types outside the .NET class.


The first widely distributed implementation of C# was released by Microsoft in July 2000, as part of its .NET Framework initiative. C# is used in the development of hosted and embedded systems, ranging from large projects using sophisticated operating systems to smaller projects having dedicated functions.


Objective-C is a reflective, object oriented language that fuses Smalltalk messaging capabilities with the procedural C language. It features dynamic late binding which gives more flexibility and power to the developer, allowing them to accommodate rapid changes and enhance responsiveness to running applications.


Though Objective-C can be used to create generic apps, its major value today is because it’s used to write native apps for iOS devices and Mac OS X. It is the primary language used for Apple’s Cocoa API, and is the original main language on NeXT’s (Steve Job’s venture after leaving Apple Inc.) NeXTSTEP OS.

The TIOBE Programming Community index is an indicator of the popularity of programming languages that’s updated every month. According to August statistics, Java is the #1 most talked about language in search engines, with the most instructional courses, engineers and vendors to its name. C# comes in at #5 place and Objective-C at #6.

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